Spectrum 2/1-GF System Notes

Spectrum 2/1-GF System Notes


Copyright Spectrum Group 2002
All Rights Reserved

     These system notes presume a good working knowledge of
Standard American bidding methods.  This system summary 
details all pertinent aspects of the Spectrum 2/1-GF system
and is presented as a good consensus structure for casual


CHAPTER 1.................The No Trump Structure
CHAPTER 2.................2C Opening Bids
CHAPTER 3.................Major Suit Openings
CHAPTER 4.................Minor Suit Openings
CHAPTER 5.................Dealing with Interference
CHAPTER 6.................Other Doubles
CHAPTER 7.................Passed Hand Bidding
CHAPTER 8.................Defensive Bidding
CHAPTER 9.................Pre-empts
CHAPTER 10................Lebensohl
CHAPTER 11................Slam Bidding
CHAPTER 12................Defensive Carding


    Flat hands either open in No Trump or rebid
it if, in doing so, they do not bypass a 4-card
major.  The exception is the 5-3-3-2 hand that
includes a 5-card major.  These are opened in 
the long suit unless they amount to 17 points 
(or 16 with Kx or AQ in the doubleton suit), in 
which case 1NT is preferred.  The ranges for 
No Trump bids are similar to those of SAYC except 
for the addition of the Gambling 3NT:

   1m:any:1NT  =  13-14 points.
    1H:1S:1NT  =  13-16 points.
          1NT  =  15-17 points.  
1any:1any:2NT  =  18-19 points.
          2NT  =  20-21 points.
    2C:2D:2NT  =  22-24 points.
    2C:2D:3NT  =  25-27 points.
    2C:2D:4NT  =  28-30 points.
          3NT  =  Gambling;  solid minor, little outside.

Responses to 1NT:

  5NT  = Quantitative, 20-21 points, invites 7NT, forces 6NT.

  4NT  = Quantitative, 16-17 points, invites 6NT.

   4H  = Texas Transfer to Spades with 6+ Spades.

   4D  = Texas Transfer to Hearts with 6+ Hearts.

   4C  = Gerber.  5C next will ask for Kings.

  3NT  = 11-15 points, to play.

3H/3S  = 16+ points, 6+card suit, natural, inviting slam.

3C/3D  = 9-10 points, 6+card suit, invitational.

  2NT  = 9-10 points, flattish, invites 3NT.

   2S  = Jacoby Transfer to a minor.  Opener rebids:
         2NT = Superior Diamonds to Clubs.
          3C = Clubs equal to or better than Diamonds.
               Responder can now stop in 3C or 3D or
               move towards a possible minor suit slam
               by bidding hir longer major (a fragment).
               1NT:2S:3C:3NT  = Slam try in Diamonds.
               1NT:2S:2NT:3NT = Slam try in Clubs.

   2H  = Jacoby Transfer to a 5+card Spade suit.  Now:
          Pass  = 0-8 points.
           2NT  = 9-10 points, inviting 4S or 3NT.
         3C/3D  = Game forcing, 3+card suit.
            3H  = 5-5 in the majors, slammish (else 4H).
            3S  = 6+ Spades, 9-10 points, inviting 4S.
           3NT  = 11-15 points, 5 Spades.  "3NT or 4S?"
         4C/4D  = Cuebid slam tries with 6+ Spades.
            4H  = 5-5 in the majors, 11-15 points.
            4S  = 6+ Spades, 16-17 points, slam try.

   2D  = Jacoby Transfer to a 5+card Heart suit.  Now:
          Pass  = 0-8 points.
            2S  = 5-5 majors, 9+ points, ONE round force.
                  Opener rebids 3H or 3S if minimum.
           2NT  = 9-10 points, inviting 4S or 3NT.
         3C/3D  = Game forcing, 3+card suit.
            3H  = 6+ Hearts, 9-10 points, inviting 4H.
            3S  = Cuebid slam try with 6+ Hearts.
           3NT  = 11-15 points, 5 Hearts.  "3NT or 4S?"
         4C/4D  = Cuebid slam tries with 6+ Hearts.
            4H  = 6+ Hearts, 16-17 points, slam try.

   2C  = Stayman, asking for a 4-card major.  Now:
       2D denies a major, whereupon we might see:
         2H/2S  = 5+card suit, invitational only.
           2NT  = Natural, invitational.
         3C/3D  = Game forcing.
         3H/3S  = Smolen, 4 in one major, 5+ in the other.

       2H shows 4-5 Hearts.  Now:
            2S  = Game force with 4 Spades OR Slam try 
                  with 4+ Hearts.  Opener rebids 2NT or,
                  with 4 Spades, 3H (minimum) or a minor.
           2NT  = Invitational with 4 Spades, 0-3 Hearts.
         3C/3D  = Game forcing, natural.  5+ card suit.
            3H  = 9-10 points, natural, inviting game.
         4C/4D/3S  = Cuebid slam tries with 4+ Hearts.

      2S shows 4-5 Spades.  Opener rebids similar to 
         after 1NT:2C:2H except that 1NT:2C:2S:3H is
         always a slam try in Spades while 1NT:2C:2S:4H
         is a cuebid slam try with 4+ Spades.
Responses to 2NT:

     Replies to 2NT are similar to those to 1NT, with
Stayman 3C, Jacoby Transfers of 3D, 3H and 3S, Gerber 
4C and Texas Transfers of 4D and 4H.  Again, ST TOMAS
("Stayman Then The Other Major Asks `Slam'") is in
effect:  2NT:3C:3H:3S asks Opener to rebid 3NT without
4 Spades while 2NT:3C:3S:4H is a slam try in Spades.
2NT:3C:3D:3H (4 Hearts, 5+ Spades) and 2NT:3C:3D:3S
(4 Spades, 5+ Hearts) are Smolen.  2NT:4NT (12 points) 
and 2NT:5NT (16 points) are quantitative slam tries. 

Rebids over 2C:2D:2NT:

     Responder rebids as opposite a 2NT opening,
forcing game with 4+ points, inviting a small slam
with 11-12 points or a grand slam with 13-14 points.
Rebids over 2C:2D:3NT:

     Here 4C is Stayman, after which 4NT is Blackwood.
Over 2C:2D:3NT, 4D, 4H and 4S are all Jacoby Transfers 
while 4NT (6-7 points) and 5NT (10-11 points) are 
quantitative raises.


     2C shows 22+ HCPs and a flat hand OR 9+ tricks
in an unbalanced hand.  If Opener finds a fit game
is forced.  Responder's options are:

   2D  = Waiting, on one of three types:

          i) Negative, 0-7 points.

         ii) 4-4-4-1 type, 8+ points.

        iii) Flat, 13+ points, too strong for 3NT.

         Opener rebids 2NT (22-24), 3NT (25-27) or
higher if flat, leaving Responder to proceed.  If
unbalanced, Opener rebids naturally in a suit.  The
Principle of Fast Arrival applies to all raises.

   2H/2S/3C/3D = Natural, 8+ points, 5+ card suit 
                 of any strength.  Game forcing.

   2NT = 7-9 points, flat, game forcing.  3C by Opener 
         now is Stayman.  All other bids are natural.

   3NT = 10-12 points, flat, game forcing.  4C by
         Opener is Stayman, 4D, 4H and 4S are FORCING
         and natural.  2C:3NT:4NT is quantitative.


    1H and 1S in first or second seat promise 5+ cards 
in the bid suit and 13-21 points.  2/1-GF-Spectrum 
uses a forcing 1NT response, 4th suit forcing to game 
and weak jump shifts in the majors but intermediate 
jumps in the minors.  Bergen raises are not part of 

    In response to 1H we may see:

   1S = 6+ points, one round forcing.

  1NT = 6-12 points, forcing for one round.  
        1H:1NT:2m:2S is a strong raise of the minor.
        1H:1NT:2H:2S is a limit raise with 3 Hearts.

2C/2D = 13+ points, 3+card suit (usually 4+), game
        forcing.  If followed by 3H Responder shows
        3-card support.  If followed by a jump to 4H
        Responder shows a distributional raise (10-12
        points and plenty of cards in the 2 bid suits).

   2H = 6-9 points, 3+ Hearts.

   2S = 16+ points, 5+ Spades with 3+ Hearts or 
        6+ very good spades.  Strong jump shift.

  2NT = Jacoby 2NT, 4+ Hearts, game forcing.  
        Opener rebids:
           3NT = 16-18 points.  No shortness.
            3H = 19-21 points.  No shortness.
      3C/3D/3S = Shortness in the bid suit.
            4H = Minimum, 13-15 points.
         4C/4D = Natural, 2-suited.

3C/3D = 10-12 points, natural, 6+ card suit.  
        Intermediate jumps in the minors.

   3H = Limit raise, 10-12 points, 4+ Hearts.

   3S = Splinter raise, 13+ points, 4+ Hearts, 0-1
        Spade, suggesting slam.

4C/4D = Splinter raises, similar to 3S, short in
        the bid minor suit.

   4H = Pre-emptive, 0-9 points, 5+ Hearts.

     Responses to 1S are similar.  1S:3H is strong
while 1S:1NT:2m:3H shows 10-12 points with 6+ good
Hearts.  1S:2H promises a 5+card Heart suit.

Subsequent rebids:

     After a one-over-1 response and a 1NT rebid
by Opener (e.g. 1H:1S:1NT) Responder can use New
Minor Forcing to check back for 3-card Spade 
support.  If Opener rebids 2S any rebid by Responder
other than 3S is game forcing.  Over any other rebid
by Opener New Minor Forcer must rebid a minor to
force game.

     2/1-GF-Spectrum uses 4th Suit forcing to game.
To avoid forcing with length in the 4th suit 
Responder has to jump in the 4th suit.  1H:1S:2C:2D
is a game force;  1H:1S:2C:3D is non-forcing.

Sequences after a 2-over-1 reply:

     After a game forcing 2-over-1 response Opener
should only reverse (e.g. 1H:2C:2S, 1H:2D:3C, etc.) 
or raise a minor (e.g. 1S:2C:3C) with 16-21.  With
13-15, Opener should rebid the major before raising
or introducing a minor (e.g. 1S:2C:2S:2NT:3C or
1S:2D:2S:2NT:3C reveals 13-15 points) at the 3-level.

     If Opener skips a suit after hearing a 2-over-1
response Opener denies 4+cards in that suit.  

     Responder often uses an unlimited and artificial 
2NT rebid after making a 2-over-1 response to seek 
more information from Opener.

     A 2NT rebid by Opener (e.g. 1S:2C:2NT) reveals
a flat hand of either 13-15 points or 17-21 with 
3-card support for Responder's suit.  In the latter
case Opener will rebid again over a 3NT signoff by
Responder (e.g. 1S:2C:2NT:3NT:4C).  

     Since Opener will rebid in No Trump (3NT is a
picture bid with 17-19 points and a doubleton in
Responder's suit) any suit rebid--including the
catch-all rebid of the major--promises an unbalanced


     1D shows a flat hand in the 13-14 or 18-19
point range or an unbalanced hand in the 13-21
point range.  1D Opener has 4=4=3=2 or 4+ Diamonds.
2/1-GF-Spectrum bids suits up the line and uses
inverted minors except over a double.

     In response to 1D we may see:

1H/1S = 6+ points, 4+card suit, one round forcing.

  1NT = 6-9 points, no major.  This may include
        significant support for Opener's minor,
        too strong for 3D (weak), too weak for
        2D (10+ points, inverted).

   2C = Game forcing.  Opener rebids as after a
        2/1-GF response to 1H or 1S except that
        Opener may reverse into a major with a
        flat 18-19 points.  1D:2C:2D promises an
        unbalanced hand but can be 3-suited if
        minimal.  1D:2C:3C shows 16-21 so with
        13-15 and Club support Opener may rebid
        2D before raising Clubs.

   2D = 10+ points, 5+ Diamonds, no major.  Opener
        tends to rebid stoppers up the line.  If
        Responder rebids 3D immediately Responder
        unveils a limit raise.

2H/2S = 16+ points, 5+card suit with 4+ Diamonds
        or a strong 6+card suit, strong.

  2NT = 10-12 points, flattish, no major, inviting 
        Opener to 3NT.

   3C = 10-12 points, 6+ Clubs, no major, invitational.

   3D = 0-6 points, 5+ Diamonds, no major, weak.

3H/3S = Splinters, 5+ Diamonds, no major, 13+ points.

  3NT = 13-15 points, flat, no major.

     1C reveals 4=3=3=3 or 3=4=3=3 in the 13-14 or
18-19 point range or 4+ Clubs with 13-21 points.
Responder bids much the same as opposite 1D.  
Of note is the fact that 1C:2D is strong; it is 
the one exception to the rule that jumps in the
minors are intermediate in 2/1-GF-Spectrum.

     1C:1D:1H:1S is a one round force, after which
Responder's only game-forcing rebid will be 2S
(e.g. 1C:1D:1H:1S:1NT:2S forces game).  1C:1D:1H:2S
is an immediate game force denying 4+ Spades.

     Fourth Suit Forcing is ofter used to distinguish
between strong raises.  After 1C:1D:1S a leap to 4S
is 13-14;  2H then 4S is 15-16 while 2H then 3S is
17+ points, strongly inviting 6S.


After 1-of-a-Suit Opening:

     Free calls in a new suit over a takeout double 
are forcing for one round if at the ONE level 
(e.g. 1D-Dble-1S), not forcing (1D-Dble-2C) 
otherwise.  Free 1NT bids show 8-10 while 2NT is
Dormer/Jordan, showing a limit raise or better 
with a 4+ card support for Opener's suit.

    After an overcall, simple free bids in any new 
strain show at least 8 points.  Free No Trump calls 
promise a guard in the enemy suit, a flattish hand
and usually less than 4 cards in any unbid major suit;
their ranges are:  8-10 (1NT), 11-12 (2NT) and 
13-15 (3NT).  Even a simple raise should show some
extras:  1H-1S-2H shows 8-10 points. 

    CARLOS (i.e. "Cuebids Are Raises--Limit--Or
Strong") is employed by Responder or Advancer.

    Negative doubles (e.g. 1D-1S-Dble showing four
Hearts, 8-12 points with one of the unbids OR a 
plan of action) are in effect up to 3S.  A negative
double followed by a new suit rebid by Responder is 
NOT forcing.

     Support doubles and redoubles are in effect up 
to and including the 2H level, but promise extra 
values.  Hence, a pass does not deny 3+ card support 
for Responder's suit.  Free bids other than raises 
(e.g. 1D-P-1H-1S-2D) do deny 3+ card support for 
Responder's suit, though.

    Inverted minors are ON after an overcall but 
OFF over a takeout double.  Over any takeout double
or cuebid, an immediate raise is weakest, pass then
raise is a medium strength hand while [re]double
then raise is strongest.

    "Unusual versus Unusual" is employed if the 
opponents bid 2NT over our 1H or 1S openings. For
example, after 1H-2NT:
   a) 3C = 3+ card Heart support, limit or stronger, 

   b) 3H = Competitive,
   c) 3D = 5+ good Spades and 11+ points, 

   d) 3S = reveal 5+ Spades, competing (8-10 points).

     Similarly, after 1S-2NT we might see:

   a) 3C = 5+ Hearts, 11+ points, 

   b) 3H = 5+ Hearts, competing (8-10 points),
   c) 3D = Spade support, limit or stronger, 

   d) 3S = 3+ Spades, competing (8-10 points).

After a 1NT or 2NT opening:

    Doubles and redoubles are penalty.  Lebensohl
with "direct denies" is in effect if the opponents
overcall via 2-of-a-suit.  Should 1NT or 2NT be 
doubled system is on.

After 2C openings:

     All doubles are penalty except a low level
(i.e. below 3NT) double in the passout seat by 
2C Opener.  2C-2H-Dble, 2C-Pass-2D-2H-Dble and 
2C-Pass-2D-2H-Pass-Pass-Dble are all penalty, but 
2C-2H-Pass-Pass-Dble is takeout.

After pre-emptive openings:

     Free bids in a new suit are a one round force,
often lead directional bids in support of Opener's
long suit.  All doubles by Responder are penalty.


     Responsive, competitive and maximal ("game
try") doubles are in effect up to and including 3S.  
For maximal doubles, both opponents must have implied
a holding in their bid suit for it to have been
"agreed" by them.  Ergo:

    i)  1S   Dble   2S    3H
        Dble                 = Maximal.

   ii)  1S   Pass   2S    3H
        Dble                 = Co-operative.

  iii)  1S    2H    2S    3H
        Dble                 = Maximal.
    Snapdragon doubles are in effect up to the
2S level.  Lightner doubles and SOS redoubles 
are included. 


     Reverse Drury is in effect opposite any
third or fourth seat major suit opening.  Opener
rebids hir major if weak, but can rebid an
artificial 2D on 14+ points as a "wait and see"
temporizer.  After P:1S:2C:2D or P:1H:2C:2D Responder
can rebid Opener's major at the two level with 
10-11 points or force game by jumping to three of 
Opener's major with 12 points.  Responder's 2C
promises support for Opener's major since, with
6+ Clubs and 10-12 points Responder could make an
intermediate jump response of 3C.

     P:1S:2NT and P:1H:2NT are natural and 
invitational.  P:1S:3NT and P:1H:3NT are "Martian", 
showing a distributional raise with 10-12 points 
and, usually 5+card support for Opener's major. 

     Other 2-over-1 responses by a passed hand 
(i.e. P:1D:2C, P:1H:2D, P:1S:2D or P:1S:2H) reveal 
10-12 points but are not forcing.  A 2NT rebid by
Opener (e.g. 1D:2C:2NT) will now promise 14 or a
poor 15 points, inviting 3NT.

      New minor forcing is not in effect by a
passed hand Responder.  Inverted minors are.
4-card major suit openings are rather common
in 3rd or 4th seat.

      Opposite 1H or 1S openings, a 1NT response 
by a passed hand is "semi-forcing".

      Any fourth suit bid by Responder is natural
and non-forcing UNLESS Opener has jump shifted or
reversed.  Pass:1C:1H:1S:2D is to play, since
Responder can invite in No Trump (2NT here) or in
any suit (3C, 3D, 3H or 3S here).  Pass:1C:1H:2S:3D,
though, is "4th Suit Forcing":  a 10-12 point hand.


     Simple overcalls are in the 8-16 point range.
Advancer can now introduce a new denomination with
10-15 points, forward going but not forcing.  
Direct double or higher raises are weak.  Cuebids
are a one round force--often a limit raise.  If
minimal, Overcaller will rebid hir suit simply.

     Jump overcalls are pre-emptive.  New suits
by Advancer (e.g. 1C-2D-Pass-2H) are forcing.  

     Jump cuebids of a minor (i.e. 1C-3C or 1D-3D) 
opening are natural and weak while jump cues of a 
major ask for a stopper in that suit--often based 
on a long running minor in cuebidder's hand.

     Simple cuebids after the opponents have bid
only one suit and before Partner has bid are 
Michaels.  1D-2D and 1C-2C show the majors while
1H-2H and 1S-2S show the unbid major and an
unspecified minor (which Advancer may discover
by bidding 2NT).  The specific sequence 1S-2S-P-3D
is "Lover's Leap", inviting 4H.  After 2H-3H-P or 
2S-3S-P a 4C call by Advancer asks for correction 
to 4D if that is Overcaller's minor.

     A 2NT overcall in direct seat is unusual,
promising the two lowest unbid suits.  Should
the opponents bid 2 suits a 1NT overcall is
Sandwich, showing a weaker hand with 5-5 in the
unbids.  1C-Pass-1S-1NT, then, shows 5-10 points
and 5-5 or better in the reds.
     1NT overcalls in direct seat are natural with 
15-18 points.  System is ON.  In balancing seat a 
1NT bid shows 10-16 points and a flattish hand 
with little interest in the majors.  A 2NT call 
(e.g. 1D-P-P-2NT) in the passout chair reveals 20-21 
points and a flat hand with guards in the enemy suit.

     Takeout doubles are either interrogative (10+ 
points with support for the unbids) or declarative
(17+ unbalanced or 19+ flat).  Advancer is asked 
to bid a suit, jumping with 9-12 points.  Cuebids
by Responder are responsive:  either 9+ points and
two of the unbid suits or 14+ points.  Such cues
do not promise a rebid so Doubler would have to
jump or cuebid the opponent's suit to force game.

     Against a strong 1NT DONT is in effect.  
Cappelletti (aka "Capp" or "Hamilton") is used
against weak 1NT openings.  As a default definition,
"weak 1NT" refers to any 1NT opening call which can
be made on 13 HCPs or less.


     Opening bids of 2D, 2H and 2S are weak.  Below
game, only a raise is non-forcing.  A 2NT response 
asks Opener to rebid hir suit if minimal or, if 
holding a sound pre-empt, show a feature.

     3C and 3D are pre-emptive openings with 
natural, forcing 3-level suit responses.

     3H and 3S are also pre-emptive.  Major suit
responses are natural, forcing to game.  Hence,
3S:4H is to play.  Minor suit responses are to be
taken as forcing cuebids until Responder rebids
that suit or a lower ranked one.  3H:4D:4H:5C is
natural but 3H:4C:4H:5D or 3H:4D:4H:4S is a cuebid 
in support of Hearts.
     3NT is gambling, showing a solid minor with
little outside.  Any Club response is now a runout,
asking for correction to Diamonds if that is 
Opener's long minor.  3NT:4NT is quantitative,
asking for a 7th card in Opener's minor for slam.
3NT:4D asks for a singleton whereupon:
           4H = Spade shortness.
           4S = Heart shortness.
          4NT = No singleton or void.
           5C = Long Clubs, short Diamonds
           5D = Long Diamonds, short Clubs.

      4C and higher suit pre-empts are natural.
Any 4NT or 5NT opening bid is a pre-empt with both 


     Lebensohl is in effect if our 1NT overcall
or opening bid is overcalled by the opponents at 
the two level, opposite any double of a pre-emptive 
2D, 2H or 2S opening bid or whenever the opponents 
raise their suit to the 2-level before or after a 
takeout double by Partner.

 e.g. a)   (1D)  1NT   (2D)   2NT  = Lebensohl.
      b)   (1S)  Pass  (2S)   Dble = Takeout.
            (P)  2NT               = Lebensohl.

      c)   (1H)  Dble  (2H)   2NT  = Lebensohl.

      d)   (2D)  Dble  (P)    2NT  = Lebensohl.

     The style employed is that of "direct denies"
while "slow shows".

 e.g. a)   ---  1NT  (2S) 3NT = No Spade guard.
      b)   (2D) Dble (P)  3NT = No slam interest.

      c)   (1H) Dble (2H) 2NT = Forcing 3C.
           (P)  3C   (P)  3NT = Slam interest.

      d)   ---  1NT  (2C) 2NT = Forcing 3C.
           (P)  3C   (P)  3NT = Club guard.

      e)   ---  1NT  (2S) 2NT = Forcing 3C.
           (P)  3C   (P)  3S  = Stayman, Spade guard.

      f)   ---  1NT  (2H) 3H  = Stayman, no Heart guard.



    2/1-GF-Spectrum uses the "European" (aka "Italian")
cuebidding approach of cuebidding first or second round
controls (Ace, King, singleton or void) indiscriminately
at the first level up the line.  Skipping a suit denies
a first or second round control there.

 e.g. a)  1H   3H  = Limit raise.
          4C   4D  = Control of Diamonds & Spades.

     In the above example, 4C denied a Spade control so
4D promised control of both Spades and Diamonds (else 
4H, ending there).  Once trumps have been bypassed at
the next level the pair specifies first round controls.

 e.g. a)  1H      = 13-21 points, 5+ Hearts.   
              3H  = Limit raise.
          3S      = First or second round Spade control.
              4D  = Diamond control, no Club control.
          4S      = Ace or void in Spades.
              5D  = Ace or void in Diamonds.


     4C is Gerber only as a jump opposite Opener's 1NT
or 2NT opening bid or rebid.  

Roman Key Card Blackwood:

     4NT is Roman Key Card Blackwood.  Trumps can be
confirmed either explicitly via a raise (e.g. 1S:3S)
or implicitly (i.e. the last bid suit, as with 1S:4NT).
Key Cards (i.e. any Ace or the King of trump) are 
shown via the following steps:

      5C = 0 or 3 Key Cards
      5D = 1 or 4 Key Cards
      5H = 2 or 5 Key Cards without the trump Queen.
      5S = 2 or 5 Key Cards with the trump Queen.
     5NT = 0, 2 or 4 Key cards with a useful void.
  6-suit = 1, 3 or 5 Key cards with a useful void
           in the bid suit or, if trumps, a higher
           ranked suit.

     If RKCer (i.e. the person who bid 4NT) finds
Replier (i.e. the one responding to 4NT) with 3+ Key 
Cards the pair is committed to slam.  If RKCer tries 
to sign off at the five level after 5C or 5D from 
Replier the latter MUST bid again.  To illustrate, 
after 1S:4NT:5D:5S Replier's options are:

      Pass = 1 Key Card.
       5NT = 4 Key Cards with the trump Queen.
  6C/6D/6H = 4 Key Cards, no Spade Queen (else 5NT), 
             King in the bid suit.
        6S = 4 Key Cards, no trump Queen or King
             outside Spades.

     After hearing the reply to 4NT RKCer can try
for a grand slam and confirm possession of all 
five Key Cards by rebidding 5NT.  Replier shows
specific Kings, cuebidding any King.  If Replier
has a source of tricks Replier will force to the
seven level.

     Instead of 5NT, RKCer can bid a new suit
below trumps to ask for the trump Queen.  With
this card Replier will usually bid beyond the
trump suit (e.g. 1H:4NT:5C:5D:5S or higher).
Without the trump Queen Replier will usually
stop in the agreed suit (e.g. 1H:4NT:5C:5D:5H).
One sequence is noteworthy:  after 1S:4NT:5C:5D,
5H shows the Heart King but does not answer the
question regarding possession of the Spade Queen.
If RKCer attempts to stop in 5S Replier will
insist on 6S if in possession of the trump Queen.
If RKCer rebids higher than 5S, on the other hand, 
Replier will insist on 7S if looking at the trump 

    A 5-level rebid higher than the agreed 
trump suit may be either a signoff in 5NT or,
if RKCer bids a small slam, may be a grand slam 
try looking for the trump Queen.  Replier 
will rebid 5NT which RKCer will either pass 
or, if making a grand slam try, correct to 
six of the agreed suit.

   1D  4NT = RKC.
   5D   5H = "Bid 5NT, please."
   5NT  6D = "Bid 7D with the Diamond Queen, Pard."

    If not preceded by 4NT, 5NT is a Grand
Slam Force (aka "Josephine") asking Partner
to a grand slam if holding two of the top
three honours in the trump suit.  If no
suit has been raised the last bid suit is
presumed to be trumps.  1S:5NT, then, asks
Opener to bid seven if holding the AK, AQ
or KQ of Spades.


    2/1-GF-Spectrum uses 3rd & 5th best
leads against suit and no trump contracts.
From AK one leads the Ace to ask for count,
the King to ask for attitude in that suit.
This is KATARACT:  "King ATtitude, Ace
Requests A CounT".  An Ace FROM LENGTH 
against No Trump asks Partner to drop any 
honour in that suit, showing count only if 
lacking such an honour.  Aside from those 
headed by the Ace, the highest is led from 
any sequence except a good broken sequence.  
For instance, from KQ109x one leads the Queen 
to "look for the Jack".

    Suit preference (high for a high ranked
suit, low for a low ranking suit), attitude
(high encourages, low discourages) and count
(smallest from an odd number, echoing with
an odd number in the suit) are all standard.
Suit preference is often shown in trump.

    The first discard is attitude unless
one is discarding from a "known" suit
(typically, one in which Declarer has shown
out), when one shows suit preference.
===  Differences between 2/1-GF-Spectrum and 2/1-GF-OK  ====

2/1-GF-Spectrum                    2/1-GF-OK

Intermediate jumps to 3C and 3D    Strong jumps throughout
ST TOMAS and Smolen                Not included
1NT:2S as a Jacoby Transfer        Minor Suit Stayman
1H:1NT!:any:2S as a strong raise   Undefined
DONT vs Strong 1NT, CAPP vs weak   CAPP against any 1NT
1S:2C:3NT = 5=3=3=2, 18-19         Any flat 18-19 hand
Up the line bidding                Undefined
CARLOS                             Cuebids undefined
Jordan                             Undefined
Support [Re]Doubles show extras    Can be made if minimum
Unusual versus Unusual             Not mentioned
Replies to 2C and NT bids detailed Undefined
Passed hand bidding detailed       Undefined
Jump cuebids described             Undefined
Responsive Cuebids                 Not mentioned
System ON opposite 1NT overcalls   Undefined
Lover's Leap                       Not mentioned
Leb over 2-bids if Pard Xd or 1NT  Leb opp 1NT or 2any-X-P
European style cuebids             Undefined
Gerber                             Not mentioned
Grand Slam Force                   Not mentioned
SPIT, KATARACT and 3rd & 5th       Carding not mentioned

=====  Additions and Modifications to 2/1-GF-Spectrum  =====

The following common conventions are among many which are 
not part of 2/1-GF-Spectrum but could be added to it after 

Wolff Signoffs                     Coded 9s and 10s
Defensive Doubles                  Flannery
Dynamic 1NT openings & overcalls   Ghestem
Redwood/Minorwood                  Kickback Blackwood
Roman 3-suited openings            Multi 2D openings
Herbert responses                  Step responses to 2C

Impossible Bids
BORIS and SORIS Doubles
Kaleidoscope #3: Defensive Doubles
Rainbow #4: Lebensohl


The Rainbow Series, from 10:00 A.M. to 12:30 PST every weekday, is a lecture program on the SAYC system, from Opening Bids all the way through to the conventional aspects of SAYC. Unlike the FireSide and 5th Chair sessions mentioned above, the Rainbow Series is a semi-private lesson program for our students. Nevertheless, you are invited to stop by and "eavesdrop" on the discussion from the Spectator's Loft.

If you have any questions arising from these notes, or about the Rainbow Lesson Series, please do not hesitate to email me at: cpw@escape.ca

Lesson #1: Opening Bids
Lesson #2: Responses to Opening Bids
Lesson #3: Rebidding Strategies
Lesson #4: Interference
Lesson #5: OverCalls & Takeout Doubles
Lesson #6: Two-Suited Overcalls
Lesson #7: Pre-Empts
Lesson #8: Competing with Doubles
Lesson #9: Lebensohl
Lesson #10: Defensive Signalling
Lesson #11: Defensive Strategies
Lesson #12: Declarer Play

General Rules of SAYC Bidding
Fit Inspired Bids - "FIBs"
IMPs Versus MatchPoints
Hand Evaluation
Defensive Signals
Jacoby Transfers
Jacoby 2NT Response to 1H or 1S
Michaels Cuebids
3 Types of Responding Hands
Percentages in Bridge
Roman Key Card Blackwood
BROZEL over their 1NT
4th Suit Force
Assume Jumps Are Raises
Glossary of Terms
Colin's Rules of Bridge

Spectrum System Notes (text only)
Spectrum System Lesson (text only)
Spectrum System Notes with Answers
(text only, for after the lesson)
Spectrum System Lesson Remarks
(text only, for after the lesson)
Back to the Tutoring Web Page
Back to Colin's Personal Bridge Page